Parma

Parma fans at Ennio Tardini

Parma were initially known as Verdi FC when they were formed in 1913 as a celebration of opera composer Giuseppe Verdi's centenary but they changed their name to Parma FC later that year. The Emilia-Romagna outfit went through several incarnations in the lower leagues before hitting the big time in 1990 and securing sponsorship from giant dairy company Parmalat. The Ducali won two UEFA Cups, the European Cup Winners' Cup and lifted the Coppa Italia three times. Parmalat collapsed but Parma stay afloat despite having to bounce back from Serie B in 2008-09.

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