1. Canada is a constitutional monarchy
Canada's prime minister, like the UK's, is only the head of government - not state.
2. Provinces and territories
3. The Westminster Model
Canada’s parliamentary system is based on London’s Westminster model. The country has a lower chamber – the House of Commons – and an upper chamber – the Senate. The senate is similar to the House of Lords in Britain, but has regional quotas and seat limits.
4. The Voting System
Canada, like the UK, uses the majoritarian voting system of FPTP. Voters across Canada vote in 338 single-seat constituencies (called ridings) up and down the country.
5. The Party System
It is also worth noting that presence of the Bloc Quebecois, who are a Quebec nationalist party. Interestingly, following the 1993 election, Bloc Quebecois were the country’s second largest party making them the Official Opposition in the Canadian House of Commons.
Imagine the SNP leading the opposition in the United Kingdom.
6. The 2011 election
In 2011, the Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper did a David Cameron by turning the Conservative minority into a majority. The election was also significant because of the replacement of the Liberals as the second largest party by the NDP. Much of the NDP’s success was noted to be largely a result of Jack Layton’s leadership.
7. The 2015 election
Four years later, the remarkable happened. Justin Trudeau, son of former Canadian prime minister Pierre Trudeau, took his party from third to first place, leapfrogging both the Conservatives and the NDP.
The Liberals won a majority with almost 40% of the vote.