The Burnley youth academy product spent the first half of the season on loan to Port Vale, however, was recalled last week.
Anderson will spend the rest of the season on loan at the Yorkshire club, having been promoted a division from his earlier spell away from Burnley
Still yet to make his competitive senior debut for the Clarets, Anderson has spent time on loan at 7 different clubs, with the Doncaster move set to be his 9th spell away on loan.
The 24-year-old was a key member for Port Vale this season, making 24 appearances for the club, helping his side climb out of the relegation zone.
Speaking to the Doncaster website Anderson said: "I'm looking forward to the challenge and i'll give it my all, I try and dominate players in the air and do the basics of being a defender.
"I see this as another progression in my career, the manager was really good with me when we had a conversation about coming here. I know he has a reputation for developing young players so i'm looking forward to it."