The young shot-stopper has made four league appearances for Sheffield Wednesday.
The 22-year-old will link up with Chesterfield, whose first-choice shot-stopper Joe Anyon broke his arm in the defeat to Fleetwood Town in the Checkatrade Trophy this week, as reported by BBC Sport.
So far Dawson has made just four league appearances for Sheffield Wednesday, although he has gained plenty of experience elsewhere, taking in spells at Plymouth Argyle, Alfreton Town and Wycombe Wanderers.
A former England youth international, Dawson possesses impressive reflexes and is initially set to remain with Chesterfield until January.
Aside from Anyon, the only other first-team goalkeeper on Chesterfield's books is Dylan Parkin, but the 19-year-old is rather inexperienced, suggesting that Dawson will go straight into the side.
Although they have two wins and three draws from their last five fixtures, Chesterfield are currently bottom of League Two. They host Barnet, with whom they are level on points, on Saturday.
Chesterfield have conceded an alarming 37 goals in League Two this season, indicating that Dawson will be kept very busy as he aims to showcase his credentials.