The Well booked their place in the final of the competition after seeing off Celtic's Old Firm rivals Rangers 2-0 at Hampden Park, thanks to a brace from eye-catching centre-forward Louis Moult.
Celtic are unbeaten in Scottish football since Hoops boss Brendan Rodgers took over at Parkhead in the summer of 2016, which now stretches to a record-breaking 63 matches in league and cup.
The Hoops are expected to win their fourth trophy under Rodgers, but Robinson believes his side can defy the odds to end Celtic's unbeaten run and hold aloft the Scottish League Cup trophy for just the second time in their history.
Asked if winning the Betfred Cup would be Motherwell's greatest achievement, Robinson said: "I would imagine so, considering where Celtic are at the minute and what Brendan's done with them.
"We genuinely believe that we can go and give Celtic a real game and cause them real problems."
Robinson's side last won the League Cup way back in 1950-51, while their last trophy came in the form of the Scottish Cup in 1990-91. Celtic completed the treble last season, holding aloft the League Cup, Scottish Cup and the Scottish Premiership trophy.
Motherwell face a difficult away trip to Derek McInnes' Aberdeen on Saturday before November 26's cup final, while Celtic are away at Ross County.