Khan praised the work of fire fighters and the police for how they have dealt with a series of emergencies in London over the past year.
And he warned that an increase in terror attacks in the capital was "not a spike but a long-term shift".
"The government must give our services the real terms increase in funding they need, and right now," he said.
The mayor aligned himself strongly with Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn in his speech, despite having distanced himself from the Islington North MP in the past.
Referring to activist group Momentum, which has campaigned against moderates in the party such as Khan, he joked "Labour has momentum on our side".
He welcomed Labour's performance in the snap General Election, paying tribute to the four new Labour MPs from London. And, he backed the party's chances of winning when the country next goes to the polls.