The Toffees skipper will not feature for his country at Euro 2016.
The 33-year-old misses out in favour of further attacking options, with 11 midfielders and five strikers named the Three Lions' 26-man party, which will be cut by three ahead of the tournament.
The decision represents a risk for Hodgson, whose squad head to France with only three recognised centre-backs - one of whom is Jagielka's Toffees teammate John Stones - although Tottenham midfielder Eric Dier can also play there.
Manchester City midfielder Fabian Delph, Newcastle United winger Andros Townsend and Manchester United's teenage striker were all surprise inclusions, with Arsenal's Theo Walcott and West Ham's Andy Carroll joining Jagielka on the sidelines.
The news has been met with a mixed response from those of an Everton persuasion.
According to several supporters on Twitter, Stones can consider himself fortunate to have been picked ahead of his captain, while others blame a lack of defensive focus from former manager Roberto Martinez for Jagielka's omission - along with that of Toffees left-back Leighton Baines.
Here's the best of the reaction...
I'd have thought that Jagielka would have been a better choice than Stones for the Euros. #EFC— Andrew Quigley (@quigley81) 16 May 2016
Jagielka has been much better than Stones. Can't even be arsed with the rest of the squad. Too many to laugh at— David (@Banno78) 16 May 2016
No Jagielka or Bainesy in the England squad what is Roy playing at— Jen Bones (@ScottStewartHa) 16 May 2016
I'd argue Roberto Martinez's style and tactics have cost Jagielka too. Everton conceded 55 goals this year but Jagielka is a great CB...— Ell Bretland (@EllBretland) 16 May 2016
Jagielka should be going over Stones. Stones has a better future obviously but Jags has been far better.— ️ (@PhilSwagielka) 16 May 2016
Indeed, I think the decision to leave out Jagielka will be the major one that all come back to haunt Roy Hodgson should England do poorly.— Sean Lunt (@Sean_Lunt) 16 May 2016
Jagielka just get 100% fit lad n do it for us next season! Forget Woy he hasn't got a clue!— Tony (@TonyEFCWright) 16 May 2016
Should've included Jagielka in the squad, no need for an extra midfielder.— ㅤ (@Evertxn) 16 May 2016
Stones over jagielka, Henderson over Noble, Sterling over Antonio shows that form has nothing to do with it whatsoever— Funes Mori (@tommc04) 16 May 2016
Deep down I reckon Jagielka and Baines will be made up there- they'd only get the blame when Ingerlund go out anyway.— MrKJBanks (@KeJaBanks) 16 May 2016
Pleased baines and jagielka arent in, feel for them but they can have a summer off to get fit again. Massive year next year— Funes Mori (@tommc04) 16 May 2016