Details of McDonnell’s earnings and tax, which amounted to £61,575 and £14,253 respectively, were published on his website on Sunday.
The disclosure follows the government’s agreement with Google to see the tech firm pay £130m in back taxes covering the past decade.
The chancellor has insisted the deal is a “major success”, despite disquiet among members of his own party.
The shadow chancellor said taxpayers filling in their returns, due by midnight on Sunday, would be “feeling angry” and the deal had “created a lack of confidence” in the tax system.
Earlier this week, a spokesman for Jeremy Corbyn confirmed the Labour leader also planned to publish his return – a move that David Cameron vowed to echo.
McDonnell said: “I published my full tax return today as I believe if you aspire to be in charge of the nation’s finances then you should be as open and transparent about your own income as possible.
“Hopefully it will encourage George Osborne to release the details of his Google tax deal.”
The controversial Google deal with HM Revenue and Customs could be investigated by the European commission following complaints from the Scottish National party and Labour.
Google’s vice-president of communications and public affairs, Peter Barron, insisted the company paid UK corporation taxes at the standard rate of 20%.
This article was written by Rajeev Syal, for theguardian.com on Sunday 31st January 2016 19.44 Europe/Londonguardian.co.uk © Guardian News and Media Limited 2010