The 20-year-old forward was recalled from a season-long spell at Bristol City this month after falling out of first-team favour.
The 20-year-old striker, who is out of contract in the summer, spent the majority of last season with then-League One side Preston North End and has now re-joined the club in the second tier for the rest of this term.
Speaking about the move to Preston’s official website, Robinson said: “I'm glad to be back. When I heard that Preston were interested I was buzzing. I'm really looking forward to it, [being] back with the lads, back with the manager and the fans.
“I loved every minute when I was here last season and I've learnt a lot more since then as well, so I'm ready to show everyone what I can do.”
Preston manager and former Villa defender Simon Grayson added: “We are happy to re-sign Callum; he knows us and we know him. He had a bad time at Bristol and after speaking to him he is so determined to do well for us. He’s hungry to prove he is a good player.
“We aren’t an established Championship club yet and are progressing all the time, therefore we want hungry younger players who we feel can develop and improve like Daniel Johnson, Alan Browne and Josh Brownhill. I am sure there will be more signings to follow this one.”
Considered one of Villa’s top prospects, Robinson made his senior debut for the club as a late substitute in a 4-0 League Cup defeat to Tottenham Hotspur in September 2013, before going on to make four Premier League cameos towards the end of the 2013-14 season.
The England Under-20 international got his first extended taste of first-team football during two loan spells at Preston in League One last term, where he racked up seven goals in 28 total appearances while featuring mostly on the left wing as the Lilywhites sealed promotion via the playoffs.
After playing pre-season back at Villa, the Northampton-born front man then joined Bristol City in August on a season-long loan but managed just two starts and five substitute appearances for the club – the last coming in October – before he was recalled at the start of this month.
It remains to be seen whether he will experience better success back at Deepdale, but with Villa looking set to drop down to the Championship, it would be encouraging for his claret and blue future if he can show some production at that level over the coming months.