HITC Sport understands that the deal to bring the French defender to England will include an option to buy.
The agreement being put in place by the Trotters will include an option to buy should the Frenchman impress in English football.
Gouano is a 21-year-old centre-half who was snapped up by Serie A giants Juventus back in 2011.
They were quick to find him loan football elsewhere before sanctioning a switch to Atalanta, who also took the decision to get him regular minutes away from their first-team fold.
He spent last season with Portuguese outfit Rio Ave, and impressed during his time in the Primeira Liga.
Neil Lennon will be hoping he can make a similar impact in the Championship, and settle as quickly into new surroundings.
Gouano was linked with a move to Leicester City towards the end of the 2014/15 campaign, as covered by the Leicester Mercury, but is now set to continue his footballing education in the second tier, in the hope of helping Bolton clamber back onto the top rung of the English league ladder.