The Magpies midfielder was replaced by Yoan Gouffran in the first half.
The Magpies midfielder, who can also play in defence, was making his first Premier League start for Newcastle since March 2012.
A lively Taylor made a brilliant start to his side's league fixture against QPR, having several attempts at goal and winning tackles left, right and centre.
However, what appears to be a recurrence of his old knee injury looked to have affected him and Yoan Gouffran replaced him roughly 10 minutes before half-time.
Newcastle fans will no doubt hope Taylor's injury is not another long-term one, as he has suffered 26 months out with knee trouble.
The score was 0-0 at St James' Park when the midfielder came off.
Ahead of the match, the 30-year-old reflected on his return from injury during the Capital One Cup against Manchester City.
"It was one of those days where everything fell right and the result topped it off. It made those two years feel like two minutes," he said.
"It was incredible, the reaction from our fans and the lads. I had messages from John Terry, Steven Gerrard, Michael Owen, they helped me."